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The effects of aroma inhalation on pain, anxiety, and heart rate variability among elderly women with total knee arthroplasty during continuous passive motion exercise
Journal of the Korean Data & Information Science Society 2017;28:1383-402
Published online November 30, 2017
© 2017 Korean Data & Information Science Society.

So Young Park1 · Tae Im Kim2

12Department of Nursing, Daejeon University
Correspondence to: Tae Im Kim
Professor, Department of Nursing, Daejeon University, 62 Dahak-ro, Dong-gu, Daejeon 34520, Korea. E-mail: ktim56@dju.kr
Received October 16, 2017; Revised November 7, 2017; Accepted November 9, 2017.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the effects of aroma inhalation on pain, anxiety, and heart rate variability of elderly women with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) during continuous passive motion (CPM) exercise. Equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were randomized to intervention group (n=26) or control group (n=27). Participants inhaled aroma or distilled water for 5 minutes before CPM exercise and for 40 minutes during CPM exercise on 3 consecutive days. Pain NRS, number of painkiller used, anxiety NRS, blood pressure, and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured before and after intervention. Pain NRS, anxiety NRS, blood pressure in experimental group were significantly lower than those of control group. All indices of HRV were significantly different between the two groups. Based on these results, it can be concluded that aroma inhalation was effective in decreasing pain and anxiety and changing HRV among elderly women with TKA during CPM exercise.
Keywords : Anxiety, aroma inhalation, continuous passive motion exercise, heart rate variability, pain, otal knee arthroplasty