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Bayesian quantile regression analysis of private education expenses for high scool students in Korea
Journal of the Korean Data & Information Science Society 2017;28:1457-69
Published online November 30, 2017
© 2017 Korean Data & Information Science Society.

Oh Hyun Sook1

1Department of Applied Statistics, Gachon University
Correspondence to: Oh Hyun Sook
Professor, Department of Applied Statistics, Gachon University, Sungnam 13120, Korea. E-mail:
Received September 11, 2017; Revised October 16, 2017; Accepted October 23, 2017.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Private education expenses is one of the key issues in Korea and there have been many discussions about it. Academically, most of previous researches for private education expenses have used multiple regression linear model based on ordinary least squares (OLS) method. However, if the data do not satisfy the basic assumptions of the OLS method such as the normality and homoscedasticity, there is a problem with the reliability of estimations of parameters. In this case, quantile regression model is preferred to OLS model since it does not depend on the assumptions of nonnormality and heteroscedasticity for the data. In the present study, the data from a survey on private education expenses, conducted by Statistics Korea in 2015 has been analyzed for investigation of the impacting factors for private education expenses. Since the data do not satisfy the OLS assumptions, quantile regression model has been employed in Bayesian approach by using gibbs sampling method. The analysis results show that the gender of the student, parent’s age, and the time and cost of participating after school are not significant. Household income is positively significant in proportion to the same size for all levels (quantiles) of private education expenses. Spending on private education in Seoul is higher than other regions and the regional difference grows as private education expenditure increases. Total time for private education and student’s achievement have positive effect on the lower quantiles than the higher quantiles. Education level of father is positively significant for midium-high quantiles only, but education level of mother is for all but low quantiles. Participating after school is positively significant for the lower quantiles but EBS textbook cost is positively significant for the higher quantiles.
Keywords : Bayesian quantile regression, gibbs sampling, ordinary least squares method, private education expenses