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Self-esteem and quality of life in middle-aged men: The mediating effect of spirituality
Journal of the Korean Data & Information Science Society 2018;29:1519-32
Published online November 30, 2018
© 2018 Korean Data and Information Science Society.

Tae Hi Ha1 · Hee Sook Kim2

1Department of Nursing, Daegu University
2College of Nursing, Kyungpook National University
Correspondence to: Associate professor, Department of Nursing, Daegu University, Daegu 42400, Korea. E-mail:
This article is an addition based on the first author’s doctoral thesis from Kyungpook National University.
Received October 19, 2018; Revised November 18, 2018; Accepted November 19, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This study was attempted to identify the mediating effect of spirituality in the relationship between self-esteem and quality of life (QOL) of middle-aged men as a follow-up study of the previous study (Ha, 2016). Participants were 458 middle-aged men. The subjects completed a questionnaire of self-esteem, QOL and spirituality. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, Bonferroni test, Pearson correlation, three-step regression to test mediating effect and Sobel test. The major finding were as follow; 1) Self-esteem was positively correlated with QOL and spirituality. 2) Spirituality was positively correlated with QOL. 3) Spirituality had a partial mediating effect in the relationship between self-esteem and QOL. The results suggest that a nursing intervention to increase self-esteem and enhance spirituality is recommended to improve QOL of middle-aged men.
Keywords : Middle-aged man, self-esteem, quality of life, spirituality.