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Population movement of Korean bon-gwan by using scan statistics
Journal of the Korean Data & Information Science Society 2023;34:673-84
Published online July 31, 2023;
© 2023 Korean Data and Information Science Society.

Seo Yun Am1 · Yoon Sanghoo2

1Department of Data Science, Jeju National University
2Department of Statistics, Daegu University
Correspondence to: 1 Assistant professor, Department of Data Science, Jeju National University, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, 63423, Korea.
2 Associate professor, Department of Statistics, Daegu University, Daegu, 38453, Korea. E-mail:
Received March 14, 2023; Revised July 11, 2023; Accepted July 11, 2023.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The population has both the social value of being the labor force necessary for survival and the main driver of economic activity for the formation and maintenance of a country. As South Korea shifted from an agricultural-centered society to industrialization, there was a migration of the population from small towns to large cities. Even after Korea’s independence, the clan system based on blood relations, known as “bon-gwan” has had significant political and social influence. Therefore, the study of bon-gwan is necessary to understand the historical connection between South Korea’s class-based society and its territory. While studies on population migration by administrative regions have been conducted, research on migration patterns based on bon-gwan has not yet been carried out. This study analyzes the patterns of bon-gwan population movement from 1985 to 2015 by clustering the spatial distribution using scan statistics. The top three with high population density in their original regions (Andong Kim, Andong Kwon, Gwangsan Kim), the top three distributed nationwide (Gyeongju Lee, Papyong Yoon, Indong Jang), and three located far from their original regions (Haeju Oh, Pyeongsan Shin, Gyeongju Kim) has been studied. The results show that Andong and Gwangsan, which had high centralization, have preserved the tradition of clan villages with little change in the local industrial structure. However, in most bon-gwan centralization decreased due to urbanization caused by industrialization.
Keywords : Bon-gwan, degree of centralization, population movement, scan statistics, spatial clustering